November 13, 1945 – Arthur Gaith report from Nuremberg – Mutual – Gordon Skene Sound Collection –
November 13, 1945 – A news report via shortwave from Nuremberg, Germany on the upcoming War Crimes Tribunal, scheduled to take place in a week, on the 20th.
On August 8, 1945 in London, the International Military Tribunal was signed by all of the Allies. This Tribunal consisted of thirty articles that illustrated the Constitution of the Tribunal through the Jurisdiction and General Principles, the Committee for the Investigation and Prosecution of Major War Crimes, the Fair Trials for Defendants, the Powers of Tribunal and Conduct of the Trial, the Judgment and Sentences, and the Expenses. The Tribunal also dictated the role the Allied governments would have in the judgment process. From each power there was to be four representatives along with one alternate of the same government. The alternate would attend all of the same meetings and hearings as the representatives and in case of illness or extraordinary circumstances would replace a representative of his government. Thus the trials were to be held with equal representation from the Allies; the victors of World War Two would decide the fate of the German perpetrators.
In order to prosecute, the Tribunal divided the crimes into three sections: “Crimes against the Peace”, “War Crimes”, and “Crimes against Humanity”. A fourth crime was recognized as “Conspiracy to Commit Crimes Alleges in Other Accounts.” Twenty four individuals who participated in the crimes of World War Two, who were thought to hold the most responsibility, were placed on trial and awaited judgment. Those people who were of high governmental standings and had great influence over the war crimes included Goering, Hess, Ribbentrop, Rosenberg, Frank, Frick, Funk, Schacht, Sauckee, von Papen, Seyss-Inquart, Speer, von Neurath, and Friche. Those prosecuted who had been in prominent state positions included Ley, Streicher, von Schriach, and Broman. Keitel, Donitz, Raeder, and Jodl represented the fighting services that were put on trial; Kaltenbrunner was tried as a member of the SS and the police; and Gustav Krupp was prosecuted for providing industry for the Nazi regime. By placing the guilt on individuals, the Tribunal was able to punish many of the crimes of World War Two.
Considerable speculation over the trial’s outcome and what the long term affects would be for both the German people and the rest of the world. In seven days they would start to know.
Here is that report, as given over shortwave by Arthur Gaith for the Mutual Network on November 13, 1945.
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